A bovine tuberculosis (TB) vaccination trial for badgers has been launched across 550 acres of tenant farmland in south Devon.
The Sharpham Trust, an environmental charity that manages the land, does not support culling and has instead chosen to roll out the scheme over the next three years.
The estate, based at Sharpham House outside Ashprington, Totnes, is working with one of its tenants, Ambios Ltd, to run the £15,000 project.
The scheme follows similar projects at Killerton House, near Exeter, and a West Cornwall scheme, supported by MP Andrew George.
The partners hope it will contribute to a reduction in the level of TB in local cattle herds but do not expect clear results "for some years".
The National Farmers' Union (NFU) welcomed the trial but said vaccination was still some way off being the solution to infection among herds, which is now "out of control".
Chris Nicholls, Sharpham Trust director said: "The Trust feels this is the best course of positive action in the light of the complexities around the issues of badgers, cattle and bovine tuberculosis.
"There is clear scientific evidence that shows that a cull can only reduce TB in cattle by around 16% at best and may actually spread the disease further. Culling badgers is counterproductive and does not provide a credible long-term solution to the problem of the disease."
The first injectable badger vaccine, BadgerBCG, was licensed in March 2010 and is available for use on prescription.
A Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) field study over four years in an infected population of over 800 wild badgers in Gloucestershire has found that vaccination resulted in a 74% reduction in numbers testing positive for TB.
Simon Roper from Ambios Ltd, a not-for-profit organisation, said the programme was set to begin next month.
"Our task will be to capture, immunise and release as many badgers as possible across the estate," he added.
"The main effort is focused over a three-week period getting the badgers used to going in and out of locked open traps.
"Then there are two nights of live trapping and immunisation work, including individual animal welfare checks before and after injection."
NFU regional director Ian Johnson said BCG was only 50% to 60% effective and could "not cure a sick badger".
"The practicalities of catching, trapping and administering the vaccine render it impractical," he added.
"If there was an effective and easy-to-use vaccine that didn't cost a fortune people would be clutching it with both hands – nobody wants to cull badgers.
"In the longer term it may be suitable for damping down the disease which is out of control in the South West."